ইংরাজিতে ভীতি আছে?
কোনো ছাত্র অথবা ছাত্রীর যদি উপরের প্রশ্নটির উত্তর হ্যাঁ হয়, তাহলে জানবেন সে অবশ্যই ‘Tense’-এ দুর্বল। কোন এক অজ্ঞাত কারণে, অধিকাংশ ছাত্রছাত্রী টেন্স নিয়ে ভয়ংকর টেনশনে ভোগে।
এর থেকে মুক্তি পাবার উপায় খুব সহজ। প্রথমে টেন্স ও তার প্রয়োগ ভালো করে বোঝা এবং তার পরে তা ক্রমাগত অভ্যাস করে যাওয়া। ছাত্রছাত্রীদের ইংরাজি টেন্স নিয়ে টেনশন কাটানোর জন্য আমাদের এই ধারাবাহিক প্রবন্ধ আগামী কয়েকটি পর্বে প্রকাশিত হবে। লেখিকা সহজ ও প্রাঞ্জল ভাষায় চেষ্টা করবেন টেন্স-এর মূল বিষয়বস্তু ভালো করে তুলে ধরার।
On The Structure of Tense and Its Formation
A verb is a word of action. Verbs can be divided into two groups lexical and auxiliary.
Auxiliaries are further divided into primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.
The primary auxiliaries are forms of ‘to do’, ‘to be’ and ‘to have’.
- The forms of ‘to do’ are: do, does and did, doing and done.
- The forms of ‘to be’ are: is, am, are, was, were, being and been.
- The forms of ‘to have’ are: have, has, had, having and had.
The modal auxiliaries are: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, need and ought to.
Lexical verbs are also called main verbs. These have ‘meaning’ unlike the auxiliaries which do not have meaning. Thus, we understand what is meant by run, walk, write, etc.
We know that there are a total of twelve tenses – four forms of the present, the simple present, the present continuous, the present perfect and the present perfect continuous.
Similarly, there are four forms of the past the simple past, the past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous and four forms of the future– the simple future, the future continuous, the future perfect and the future perfect continuous.
Let us look at how to form these twelve tenses.
We will look at the following sentences to understand the structure of each of the twelve tenses.
The simple present : I watch TV. I move the chair. He watches TV. He moves the chair. It is seen that to the base form of the main verb ‘watch’ we have added the prefix –es, and to the base form of the verb ‘move’ we have added the prefix –s. Thus, the structure of the simple present is- verb +[s]/[es].
The present continuous : I am watching TV. He is watching TV. They are watching TV. From these we see that the structure of the present continuous is: [Am/is/are + verb + ing].
The present perfect : I have watched TV. He has watched TV. The structure of the present perfect is: [have/has + past participle].
The present perfect continuous tense : I have been watching TV. He has been watching TV. From which, the structure is: [have / has + been + verb + ing].
The simple past tense : I watched TV. He watched TV. Structure: [verb + d/ed].
The past continuous tense : I was watching TV. They were watching TV. Structure: [was / were + verb +ing].
The past perfect tense : I had watched TV. He had watched TV. Structure: [had
+ past participle]
The past perfect continuous tense : I had been watching TV. They had been
watching TV. Structure: [had + been + verb + ing]
The simple future : I will/shall watch TV. Structure: will/shall + verb.
The future continuous tense : I will / shall be watching TV. Structure: [will/ shall + be + verb + ing].
The future perfect tense : I will/ shall have watched TV. Structure: [will/shall + have + past participle]
The future perfect continuous tense : I will/shall have been watching TV. Structure: [will/shall + have + been + verb +ing].
Thus, if we take any main verb we can conjugate it according to the above structure to form the different tenses. For example, the verb ‘run’ can be conjugated as runs/run as the present tense forms. Is running is the present continuous as ‘are running’ and ‘am running’. Have run and had run are the present perfect forms and have been running and has been running are the present perfect continuous forms.