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টেন্সের টেনশন কাটান – দ্বিতীয় পর্ব



Tense হল tension-এর কারণ!

বহু ছাত্রছাত্রী এই কথার সমর্থন করবে বলে আমাদের বিশ্বাস। কয়েকটি ধারাবাহিক প্রবন্ধের মাধ্যমে আমরা tense-এর মূল বিষয়গুলি তুলে ধরার চেষ্টা করছি। আজকের পর্বে লেখিকা লিখছেন Simple Present Tense নিয়ে।

আচ্ছা Tense কাকে বলে?

Tense: A verb-based method used to indicate the time, and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an action or state in relation to the time of speaking.

Origin – Latin ‘tempus’ (meaning “time”)

Tense জানা এত জরুরী কেন?

We hear and read different sentences in our daily life. Each of those sentences narrates about some action with regard to the time of its occurrence. In other words, each of those sentences belongs to a specific tense. For expressing actions of present time, we use a specific structure of sentence. Similarly for expressing actions of past and future, we may use a different structure of sentence. Tense refers to these rules for making structure of sentence according to time of the action.



Subdivisions of Time

It is important to keep the two concepts of time and tense strictly apart.

  • The former is common to all mankind and is independent of language.
  • The latter varies from language to language and is the linguistic expression of time relations.

Thus, time is universally conceived as something having one dimension only, thus capable of being represented by one straight line

tense-line

 In this article, we are going to discuss these Tenses and their forms.

সেই ছোট বেলা থেকে আমরা tense এর গঠন সম্পর্কে পড়ে আসছি। তাই tense-এর গঠন নিয়ে নতুন কিছু শেখার নেই। এর বদলে আমরা কয়েকটি ঘটনা দেখবো, যেখানে Simple Present Tense ব্যবহার করা হয়।  

[আরো পড়ুন – ইংরাজি ভাষায় সাধারণ ভুল –প্রথম পর্ব]

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

The Simple Present Tense is used:

1. In expressions in the immediate present

She wants to speak to me at once.

It is very cold.

This tense is also used when a sentence begins with ‘here’ or ‘there’; as,

Here comes the captain!

There goes the train.

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2. To indicate the present period

It is used to refer to events, actions and situations which are true at the time of speaking and which may continue indefinitely; as,

My father works in an office.

Our school has a big hall.

[আরো পড়ুন – টেন্সের টেনশন কাটান – প্রথম পর্ব]

3. To express a situation that is permanent

This train runs from Delhi to Mumbai.

Our office faces the east.

4. To express general truths

A chemical reaction takes place in the fuel cell.

The soul is immortal.



5. To express regular or habitual actions

I get up early and have breakfast.

We can be more precise about habitual actions by using the Simple Present with Adverbs of Frequency such as sometimes, always, ever, never, occasionally, or, with Adverbial Phrases like every day, twice a month, on Sundays; etc.

He comes here twice every month.

I practice speaking French every day.

6. To express a future action

This tense is used to express a future action when the futurity is indicated by the context; as,

What do we do next month?

The college reopens next Monday.



7. In time clauses

Time Clauses are introduced by Conjunctions of Time such as when, while, until, after and as soon as, no sooner….than; as:

I’ll stay until you come back.

Call me when you reach Kolkata.

8. In conditional clauses

  Conditional Sentences have two clauses – the Conditional Clause and the Main Clause. When the Main Clause is in the Simple Future, the Conditional Clause( beginning with if or unless) is in the Simple Present; as,

If he works hard, he’ll succeed.

Unless I am convinced, I will hold him convict.

9. In factual writing

Factual writing explains a series of events in a chronological, unbiased way that allows readers to gain information that is not influenced by the personal opinions. It is written or said using Present Simple; as,

Pour three cups of water and bring it to a boil.

Put the water in a kettle and put four teaspoons of tea leaves.

After few minute, strain the tea, add milk and sugar.

10. In Dramatic Narratives

The Simple Present is used in dramatic narratives to describe the action of a play, opera, etc. It is also used in radio and in broadcasting commentaries, at sports events and public functions; as,

In a movie, Varun plays the central role.

The audience waits anxiously for the function to start.

Here comes our Chief Guest, escorted by the team captains.



11. In Reports

While reporting someone’s speech at some point in the recent past, we can use the Simple Present of a reporting verb such as hear, or tell; as,

I hear you’re moving out of the town.

I have never seen ice skating, but they tell me it is fun.

12. Telling a story or summarizing a book, film or play
  • I was walking down the streets the other day, when a man comes up to me and tells me he has lost his way. It was getting colder by the minute. I tell him to consult the signboard and was about to turn back when it hit me……
  • Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the Prince of Denmark. One night he sees his father’s ghost. The ghost tells him that…
13. To introduce quotations

Oscar Wilde says, “Be yourself; everyone else is already taken.”


দ্বিতীয় পর্বের সমাপ্তি। পরবর্তী পর্বে থাকবে tense নিয়ে  আরো আলোচনা।


এই লেখাটি থেকে উপকৃত হলে বন্ধুদের সাথে শেয়ার করতে ভুলো না।

এছাড়া,পড়াশোনা সংক্রান্ত যেকোনো বিষয়ের যে কোনো প্রশ্ন সরাসরি আমাদের করতে পারো ‘লেখা-পড়া-শোনা’ ফেসবুক গ্রূপে। এই গ্ৰুপে গিয়ে প্রশ্ন পাঠালে, আমাদের বিশেষজ্ঞরা পরবর্তী ২৪ ঘন্টার মধ্যে তার উত্তর দেবেন। গ্রুপে যুক্ত হতে ক্লিক করুন এখানে।

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Sarongi Banerjee
সারঙ্গী ব্যানার্জি বর্তমানে কলকাতার ভবানীপুর সোসাইটি কলেজের English Honours এর ছাত্রী। ছোটবেলা থেকে ইংরেজি সাহিত্যের গভীর অনুরাগী সারঙ্গীর প্রিয় খাদ্য বই।

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